Treatment is usually targeted on supportive care and treating the underlying cause. If your dog’s red blood cell volume orpacked cell volume is less than 13%, he will need a life-saving blood transfusion. Without one, dogs can become unstable very quickly.
Fluid therapy is also recommended to help replenish fluid volume in your dog’s body, and it can also help in the event of a transfusion reaction. These are rare but life-threatening occurrences.
If a tick borne-illness is suspected, your vet may prescribe an antibiotic like doxycycline. If toxin ingestion is confirmed, an antidote or supportive care will be necessary. If a cause cannot be determined, steroids are often prescribed. Prednisone is often prescribed at higher-doses in order to reduce inflammation and suppress the immune system. A faster response can be achieved with concurrent use of an immunosuppressive drug like cyclosporine, azathioprine, or mycophenolate.
Prognosis will be based on the underlying cause and response to therapy. It can take several months before you can successfully wean your dog off of immunosuppressive medications. Also, your dog should avoid all future vaccinations because they can increase the risk of an immune reaction that can trigger IMHA once more.